Learn more about our general dental and cosmetic services at Archie Dental Group in Elk Grove, California by reading our answers to some frequently asked questions. If you would like to know more, do not hesitate to contact us.
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Porcelain inlays and onlays are like pieces of a jigsaw puzzle. The porcelain pieces fit into the tooth to restore the natural effect.
Yes, porcelain inlays and onlays do replace crowns and caps. When caps and crowns are placed on the teeth, the tooth structure is drilled down to a stub. Porcelain restorations, on the other hand, build on the actual structure.
How long will my porcelain veneers last?
Porcelain veneers are intended to be long lasting restorations. They became popular in the 1980s and many patients from that time still have their veneers. In the past fifteen years not only has the technique improved but so has the adhesive bonding process and the porcelain used for veneers. Due to the advancement in this procedure, today’s veneers should last even longer.
Gum disease infects almost 80 percent of adults. The American Dental Association says that over 75-80% of all adults, even in the Sacramento, Elk Grove and West Sacramento, have or will have some form of gum disease.
Gum disease, or more correctly called "periodontal disease", is a bacterial infection in the gums and supporting structures of the teeth. It can be divided into several categories.
The first stage is called "gingivitis" and is characterized by gum tissue that is red, puffy, and bleeds easily when touched with a toothbrush, floss or dental instrument.The second, third, and fourth stages are initial, moderate, and advanced "periodontal disease", respectively. These stages are different from gingivitis because the infection has destroyed the bone supporting the teeth, causing eventual tooth loss. At Dr. Thaddous Archie & Associates the treatment is more involved at these stages, usually consisting of a special cleaning with anesthesia and sometimes gum surgery.
Gum disease during pregnancy
Many mothers have experienced gum disease, dental pain and/or tooth extraction during or shortly after their pregnancy. This is often seen as being a "normal" side effect of being pregnant. However Dr. Thaddous Archie & Associates feels that dental disease, which is an infection of the teeth and/or gums, is not "normal" for any patient.
There are three basic events that happen during pregnancy which make the patient more susceptible to dental disease. First, hormonal changes may make the gums more susceptible to gum disease.
Second, pregnant women tend to eat smaller, more frequent meals, exposing their teeth and gums to sugars and acids more often. Third, cravings for "junk foods" and inadequate oral hygiene pose an increased threat to the teeth and gums.
Pregnant women in the Sacramento area are advised to schedule a dental evaluation and receive preventive dental care at Dr. Thaddous Archie & Associates. Personalized oral hygiene instruction by Dr. Thaddous Archie & Associates will be given to fight disease and promote overall good health for the mother and her baby.
Infections in joint replacements can be instigated by severe gum disease
Dr. Thaddous Archie & Associates strongly recommends a thorough dental examination for presence of tooth and gum infection is recommended prior to joint replacement. Periodontal disease is a commonly occurring oral infection of the adult population (80% of adults are affected) destroying the bony support of the teeth. This infection slowly progresses over the lifetime of the patient and is often manifested in the advanced stage in the senior population.
Because of the lack of any discomfort to the patient until total loss of bony support to the teeth, many adults are unaware that they have this infection until they visit Dr. Thaddous Archie & Associates. However, the bacteria from this bone destroying disease, especially in the more advanced cases, has been attributed to possible infection of joint replacements.
Candidates for joint replacements who have not been seen by Dr. Thaddous Archie & Associates in over a year should consider a thorough dental evaluation of their teeth and gums before surgery.
Depending on the severity of the infection, treatment of gum infections and tooth abscesses may take from two weeks to two months before the patient reaches adequate health before surgery.
Gum and bone disease that goes undetected
Dr. Thaddous Archie & Associates feels that prevention is an overused word in our vocabulary but we all know it works. You see it in what you do every day. Who wouldn't rather prevent a crisis than manage one?
Awareness of gum and underlying bone disease is very low. Only 50% of the population visits a dentist on a regular basis. Of that 50%, 80% have some degree of gum and bone disease. It is an epidemic. Were this any other disease, we would be calling on the CDC for immediate action!
Some dental problems are easy to see - plaque! One of the easiest problems to spot is a build-up of plaque. Plaque is the soft, sticky layer of bacteria, which is constantly forming on the teeth.
Usually it is invisible to the naked eye, but when a person is not brushing adequately, it can build up to where it appears to be a thick whitish coating on the teeth at the gum line. If not removed, it can lead to gum disease.
Another potential problem, which is easy to spot, is missing teeth. Many patients Dr. Thaddous Archie & Associates sees assume that if they are still able to eat, they are O.K.
But very often, losing just one tooth can lead to the loss of support, and teeth begin to drift into the empty space, causing a change in the bite. It also forces the remaining teeth to carry an additional load, sometimes past their ability to adapt. In most cases, when even one tooth is lost, the remaining teeth suffer and are more likely to be lost as well.
Gingivitis is the most common periodontal disease, affecting 90% of the population. It is an infection of the gums caused by bacteria that form plaque.
In small amounts (when it is newly formed), plaque is invisible and relatively harmless. But when left to accumulate, it increases in volume and the proportion of harmful bacteria grows.
These bacteria release toxins that result in inflammation of the gum tissue. Eventually, the plaque hardens and forms hard deposits called calculus or tartar.
If not properly treated, gingivitis may progress to periodontitis, a periodontal disease in which there is loss of the bone that supports the teeth. Please call Dr. Archie for a complete evaluation of your potential gum disease.
Replace silver fillings with white tooth fillings
Many people in the Sacramento and Elk Grove area have had silver fillings placed into their teeth because they had "cavities". These silver fillings are called amalgams. Amalgam fills the space where the decay in the tooth has been removed. However, over time, the amalgam corrodes and leaks which blackens the silver, and many times the tooth. This is easily seen as soon as a patient opens his or her mouth and is usually a source of embarrassment for the patient.
At Dr. Thaddous Archie & Associates we can provide you with composite fillings that are made of a porcelain-like material that actually bonds to the tooth for a tight seal. They are strong and stain-resistant, and they are color-matched to the natural tooth, making them "invisible".
Composite fillings also lack the sensitivity that is often associated with silver amalgam fillings. They are especially suited for smaller cavities and for patients who may be allergic to metal fillings.
Please don't hesitate to call Dr. Thaddous Archie & Associates at 916-691-6020 with any questions you may have about the benefits of replacing silver amalgam fillings with invisible composite fillings.
Cosmetic dentistry fixes cracked, worn, discolored or broken teeth
For over 100 years, dentists have been using silver-mercury amalgam fillings to restore decayed or broken teeth. The only other alternative was gold and that was too expensive for most folks. Now there is a new and economical way to restore teeth in the Sacramento area using tooth-colored resin fillings. The resin is made up of glass particles in a plastic matrix. Dr. Thaddous Archie & Associates bonds the putty-like material to the tooth with a high-intensity light. This hardens the material and allows it to be shaped and polished for immediate use.
Once completed, the tooth has a natural appearance and is actually stronger than before due to the strength of the adhesive agent used to bond the resin to the tooth. Resin restorations not only look better, but they are stronger and last longer than the old silver-amalgam fillings. Resin restorations can range from $150 to $350 per tooth.
Please call our office at Dr. Thaddous Archie & Associates with any questions you may have about the benefits of resin restorations.
Tooth whitening dentistry to fix discolored, dark or stained teeth
Tooth bleaching involves the placement of a bleaching solution on the teeth to eliminate stains and discoloration. The solution is held in place by a custom-made, see-through tray that fits over the teeth - much like a mouthpiece worn by a professional boxer.
Bleaching is a safe, effective and relatively easy means of producing a whiter smile.
Two bleaching methods are available at Dr. Thaddous Archie & Associates: Power Bleaching with a Laser, done at our office, and At-Home-Bleaching, which provides for home use (not to be confused with over-the-counter bleaching products available in local drug stores).
The difference between the two is the strength of the whitening agent and the time it takes to get effective results. Power bleaching usually takes three to six visits, while home bleaching may take up to four weeks of regular use.
Sensitive teeth, or those that are chipped, eroded or weakened by cavities, should be repaired or protected before they are bleached.
Cosmetic dentistry painlessly repairs broken teeth with dental bonding
Bonding by Dr. Thaddous Archie & Associates is typically painless and can yield dramatic results in a single office visit. Essentially, bonding hides any natural flaws through the placement of a thin plastic coating on the front surface of the teeth.
After treating the tooth surface, Dr. Thaddous Archie & Associates applies a puttylike bonding material that is then sculpted, shaped and colored to suit the your needs. A high-intensity light causes the plastic to harden after which the new surface is smoothed and polished.
Bonding can lighten stains, close gaps and even alter crooked or malformed teeth. At Dr. Thaddous Archie & Associates we can even utilize it to change the shape or color of a single tooth or if necessary to remake your entire smile.
For over 100 years, dentistry has restored teeth primarily with a material made of mercury and silver. It has done its job well, although we have had to live with its weaknesses. Those weaknesses consist of cracking teeth due to expansion of the material, and restorations turning black as the silver in the material corrodes.
Now we have many ways to provide tooth-colored restorations at Dr. Thaddous Archie & Associates. We can use adhesives to bond tooth parts that look and act like teeth. We can provide a bright, healthy and strong smile with these exciting new techniques in adhesion dentistry.
Poor self-image, resulting in low self-esteem
The appearance of the teeth has a dramatic effect on both the person's attractiveness to others and on their own self-image and self-esteem. Studies have shown that a person's appearance will have a strong effect on their social and career success, by influencing how others perceive them.
While the appearance of the teeth is one of the most important contributors to facial beauty, it is also probably the most often neglected when improvements to appearance are sought. A person with low self-esteem connected to their facial appearance, can often be greatly helped by cosmetic dental procedures.
Dental make-overs at Dr. Thaddous Archie & Associates have become more common, less invasive, and more effective in correcting deformities and cosmetic dental problems. The effect of these procedures can be nothing short of dramatic both in terms of appearance and also in terms of correcting, at least partially, personality deficiencies caused by poor self-image. Ugly teeth are no longer a matter of fate; they are now becoming a matter of choice.
Smile with porcelain veneers
Dr. Thaddous Archie & Associates many times uses porcelain veneers for the same reasons as bonding (to lighten stains, close gaps and even alter crooked or malformed teeth). They are considerably more durable and stain resistant than bonding.
The veneer is actually a thin piece of porcelain similar in size to a fingernail. Once it is "bonded" onto the tooth it becomes extremely strong. Dr. Thaddous Archie & Associates also blends the veneer in with the remaining tooth structure so that it is unnoticeable to the naked-eye. Once in place, it looks, feels, and functions just like a regular tooth.
At Dr. Thaddous Archie & Associates we can use porcelain veneers to change the shape and color of a single tooth or if necessary, revamp an entire smile. Porcelain veneers can also be used to correct teeth that have been worn from clenching and grinding.
Cosmetic Dental Crowns
Teeth are often restored with fillings of silver or composite plastics. These materials can often accomplish the aim of replacing the part of the tooth that has been lost in a strong and good-looking manner.
However, there comes a point where the damage to the tooth has removed too much structure to hold a filling. The restoration must be done by a technique that will attach to the remaining tooth, stand up under heavier use and meet more elaborate cosmetic requirements.
The crown is the dental restoration that can strengthen and restore the entire top of a tooth. Thecrown can also be part of the attachment of a fixed bridge for the replacement of teeth. The tooth is strengthened because it is covered from the outside with a casting of metal or ceramic that will wrap up and splint the tooth.
The chewing of the tooth can be improved because it can be reshaped to match more efficiently with the opposing teeth. A crown can improve cosmetics by the use of modern ceramic processes that produce translucency and color that is more natural than has ever been possible.
Replace unsightly silver-mercury fillings
Tooth-colored "resin" fillings by Dr. Thaddous Archie & Associates
For over 100 years, dentists have been using silver-mercury amalgam fillings to restore decayed or broken teeth. The only other alternative was gold and that was always too expensive for most folks.
Now at Dr. Thaddous Archie & Associates there is a new and economical way to restore teeth using tooth-colored resin fillings. The resin is made up of glass particles in a plastic matrix. Dr. Thaddous Archie & Associates bonds the putty-like material to the tooth with a high-intensity light. This hardens the material and allows it to be shaped and polished for immediate use.
Once completed by Dr. Thaddous Archie & Associates, your tooth has a natural appearance and is actually stronger than before due to the strength of the adhesive agent used to bond the resin to the tooth. Resin restorations not only look better, but they are stronger and last longer than the old silver-amalgam fillings. Resin restorations can range from $150 to $350 per tooth.
Can bleaching gels harm my teeth?
Will my teeth become more sensitive to hot or cold?
Studies have shown that bleaching gels cause no harm to the teeth when used under direct dental supervision.
Teeth may feel sensitive for up to 24 hours after the bleaching procedure but this almost always dissipates to zero sensitivity after that.
A missing tooth? Dental care implants!
Losing a tooth by accident or by extraction is not the end of the matter. When a tooth is missing, the resulting gap will allow nearby teeth to tilt or drift from their normal position, and the teeth above the gap will move downward.
Aside from the obvious cosmetic problem, the changed positions of these teeth can lead to severe bite problems causing jaw pain and headaches.
Missing teeth should be replaced to keep other teeth in their normal position. This can be done by Dr. Thaddous Archie & Associates with a fixed bridge or a dental implant. Both of these treatments offer a good functional and cosmetic result.
Commonly asked questions about dental implants
When you are more knowledgeable about your implant treatment, you will be able to have more input to give us and better your chances of a successful treatment outcome with Dr. Thaddous Archie & Associates.
What is a dental implant?
A dental implant is a titanium metal replacement for a root of a tooth that is surgically implanted in the jawbone.
As the body heals for approximately two to six months after the surgery, the bone around the implant fuses to the implant through a process called osseointegration.
After the healing phase is complete, the implants are used to anchor crowns, bridges, or dentures.
Dental implants are the most natural replacement for a missing tooth. For more information call us at 916-691-6020.
What is the dental implant process like?
At Dr. Thaddous Archie & Associates we begin with a thorough evaluation of the patient's medical and dental history, and a full clinical examination of the entire mouth and missing tooth area. The clinical exam should also include specific X-rays.
After assessing the patient, a comprehensive treatment plan can be devised. From that point, implants are surgically placed in the jawbone under local anesthesia.
The length of the healing time is based on the quality and quantity of bone, as well as the type of implant placed. After adequate healing is allowed to occur, the implant can be used to support a crown, bridge, or denture.
How many dental implants should be placed?
This is a question that should be determined during the treatment plan. A good rule-of-thumb is to place one implant for each tooth replaced.
Other decisive factors for the number of implants needed for success is the quality and quantity of the patient's bone. Equally as important are the existing anatomy of the bone and the financial resources of the patient. (At Dr. Thaddous Archie & Associates we try not to let money get in the way of good dentistry.)
Placing enough implants to restore teeth is vitally important to the long-term success of the restoration. Simply stated, the most costly mistake is to have an implant fail because not enough implants are placed to support the teeth. If the number of implants is limited due to financial constraints of the patient, then the implant treatment should be avoided or the type of restoration must be altered.
Replace missing teeth with dental implants
"Well, you know Doc, it's just a back tooth. No one will see it so I'll just get rid of it. It's not going to make a difference." Unfortunately we hear this type of comment at Dr. Thaddous Archie & Associates more often than you would think.
The plain truth is that it will make a difference. At Dr. Thaddous Archie & Associates we know the loss of just a single tooth can set a course that can destroy an entire mouth. "Well, if that's true, tell me more. I sure don't want to lose the front ones that I smile with."
Dr. Thaddous Archie & Associates often answers with an explanation that teeth will drift and tip into a space that is created by missing teeth. Just like two gears of a car that are not properly aligned, pretty soon you've got a whole lot of problems.
"Well, I don't like that. What can I do?" If it sounds like I've heard this conversation a few times, you're right. If I'm going to keep a patient happy, I need to provide options at this point.
One of the options we often discus at Dr. Thaddous Archie & Associates would be a dental implant. This is the replacement of a tooth with a false root that is surgically placed. Dr. Thaddous Archie & Associates then carefully constructs a dental crown to replace the missing tooth, to prevent teeth from shifting and thereby causing further tooth loss.
Who should you see about getting dental implants?
When getting dental implants, you should select a dentist or dental team with in-depth knowledge and prior experience with all aspects of the treatment. At Dr. Thaddous Archie & Associates we have this expertise.
It is also important to know that implant treatment consists of two components: a surgical phase and a restorative phase.
Traditionally, a dental surgeon, like an oral surgeon or a periodontist, performs the surgical component. A general dentist, or prosthodontist and laboratory technician performs the restorative component. However, as implant dentistry has become more sophisticated, sometimes a dentist who specializes in restorative dentistry conducts the entire procedure.
Dental implant technology
The technology has been around for decades. In fact, some patients have had dental implants for more than 40 years.
Hundreds of thousands of dental implants have been inserted with more than a 90% success rate. All other metal implants in the body (including hips and knees) are the result of the dental implant technology.
Are there different types of dental implants?
Yes, several types are available. The American Dental Association considers both the endosteal and the subperiosteal implants to be acceptable.
An important factor for selection is to determine whether your jawbone can adequately support the implant. Most dental implants placed today are endosteal root form fixtures (similar to a man-made tooth root).
In the case of a single missing tooth, a dental implant can be placed in the jawbone area of the missing tooth. The implant will serve as a replacement for a tooth root and an individual crown. The total apparatus is referred to as a single-tooth implant crown.
Once in place, the implant crown will look, feel, and function like a natural tooth. They are cleaned and flossed just like natural teeth, and best of all, they do not require any special tools to clean around them like bridges.
Although dental implants will not decay, they require impeccable oral hygiene.
Care of dental crowns
Regular brushing and flossing as you would your natural teeth will ensure that your crown will be in place for years to come!
Dr. Thaddous Archie & Associates feels that while bad breath might be a symptom of some other disorder, it most likely stems from dental decay and periodontitis.
Periodontitis is a disease affecting gums and bone that support the teeth, and it results from inadequate tooth brushing and flossing. In this disease, the irritated gums pull away from the teeth and form pockets between the teeth and the gums. These pockets fill with bacteria and pus which give off a foul odor.
Patients with bad breath need a complete dental evaluation by Dr. Thaddous Archie & Associates. If gum disease and/or dental decay is diagnosed, it can be treated readily. The patient will no longer have an infection in his or her mouth, and he or she will no longer have the embarrassment of bad breath.
Infant Dental Care & Children’s Dentistry
Decayed baby teeth - bottle caries!
Signs and appearance of baby teeth displaying bottle caries:
Brown baby teeth with fragmented edges
Upper front baby teeth that break easily
Children who have erupted teeth or are past the age to be weaned are highly susceptible to rotted front teeth when being put to bed with a bottle containing milk, juice or other sugar-containing liquids. There is decreased salivary flow during sleep and clearance of the liquid from the teeth is slowed.
The liquid pools around the upper front baby teeth and creates an excellent environment to promote the growth of decay-causing bacteria. Removing the bottle before the first tooth appears and wiping the child's gums and teeth with a soft cloth before being put to bed can help prevent decay.
At 18 months of age, parents should bring their child into Dr. Thaddous Archie & Associates for examination by Dr. Thaddous Archie & Associates and recommend home care.
When should I start cleaning my baby's teeth?
This is a good habit to start early! The teeth must be cleaned as they erupt. Use a damp wash cloth or a toothbrush. If your health care provider agrees, use a tiny dab of fluoride toothpaste. Tooth brushing is definitely a parents job in the preschool years.
Children are usually able to brush their teeth well when they are 8 years old. Be sure to check your child's teeth regularly for any chalky white or brown spots which could be the beginning of tooth decay.
Erupting teeth (teething)
Since the eruption of primary baby teeth is a normal and natural process, these signs and symptoms are to be expected:
Putting fingers and hands into the mouth
Children may display other symptoms such as fever and systemic disturbances, such as croup, diarrhea, etc. These are coincidental to eruption and should be treated medically by the pediatrician as necessary.
Advice on infant teething
Sore gums from teething often occur for a few days at a time between six months to age three.
Babies often get relief from a clean teething ring, cool spoon, cold wet washcloth or toothbrush. Chilled teething rings or rubbing a clean finger on the sore gum area often helps, too.
When should my child first see a dentist?
"First visit by first birthday" sums it up. Your child should visit a dentist when the first tooth comes in, usually between six and twelve months of age. An early examination at Dr. Thaddous Archie & Associates and preventive care will protect your child's smile now and in the future.
For more answers about your baby's dental care, call us at 916-691-6020.
What dental problems could a baby have?
Dental problems can begin early. A big concern is Baby Bottle Tooth Decay (BBTD), which is preventable. BBTD can result from long periods of exposing baby teeth to liquids that contain sugar including formula, milk, breast milk, and juice.
A baby who has a habit of sleeping with a baby bottle filled with any sugary liquid or a breast in their mouth is at risk of getting BBTD. Frequent snacking on sweet or sticky foods can also cause decay.
The earlier your first dental visit to Dr. Thaddous Archie & Associates, the better chance of preventing dental problems. Children with healthy teeth can chew food well, speak clearly and share precious smiles. Start your child on a lifetime of good dental habits now!
For more answers about your baby's dental care, call us at 916-691-6020.
How can I prevent tooth decay from nursing or a bottle?
Taking your baby off of the breast when he/she falls asleep can prevent baby tooth decay. Hold your baby while bottle feeding. Always take a bottle filled with milk or juice away from the sleeping child.
If your child requires a bottle at bedtime provide a bottle filled with water. Instead of a bottle, try comforting your child with a pacifier or a favorite toy or blanket.
Check with your health care provider to make sure your child is getting the right amount of fluoride. Brush your baby's teeth with a soft toothbrush daily.
For more answers about your baby's dental care, call us at 916-691-6020.
Should I worry about infant thumb or finger sucking?
Thumb sucking is perfectly normal for infants; most stop by the age of two. Prolonged (beyond age 5 or 6 years) thumb sucking can create crowded, crooked teeth or bite problems. At Dr. Thaddous Archie & Associates we will be glad to suggest ways to address a prolonged thumb-sucking habit.
Dental decay - cavities
Fluoride has been a great benefit to patients of all ages in helping prevent dental decay. Regular brushing and flossing lowers the chance of developing "cavities."
At Dr. Thaddous Archie & Associates we know that the most decay-prone areas of teeth are the grooves and depressions on the chewing surfaces of the back teeth, which require further preventive care.
To prevent decay, a plastic-like coating called a sealant should be painted on the chewing surfaces of all the back teeth. Studies have shown that sealants can reduce tooth decay by as much as 90% to 100% nation wide.
The American Dental Association recommends, and Dr. Thaddous Archie & Associates agrees, that sealants be placed as soon as the first adult back teeth come in at age 6 or 7. Sealants should continue to be used as each adult back tooth comes into the mouth. All back teeth that need to be sealed are present by age 13. Sealant application is simple, fast, and painless. Please call Dr. Thaddous Archie & Associates with any questions you may have about the benefits using a sealant in preventing dental decay.
Prevent tooth decay
Fluoride, in proper dosage, has been shown to significantly reduce dental decay. When fluoridated water has less than the ideal amount or is not available, fluoride supplements are recommended. (A call to your local water district is all that is necessary to determine whether your water has fluoride or not.) When supplements are needed, the administration of fluoride supplements should begin shortly after birth and continue through the time of eruption of the second permanent molars (approx. 12 years of age).
Regular dental check-ups at Dr. Thaddous Archie & Associates should begin no later than 18 months of age.
While mouth guards are not mandatory equipment in all sports, their worth is indisputable. Mouthguards cushion blows to the face and neck. A mouthguard should be part of every athlete's gear, no matter the sport. Even adults or weekend athletes need to protect their smile and preserve their health.
Do: At Dr. Thaddous Archie & Associates we feel that you should wear a mouthguard at all times when playing sports. Wear a mouthguard custom-fitted by a dentist, especially if you wear bridges or braces.
Don't: Wear removable appliances like retainers when playing sports.
There are two types of mouthguards:
Custom-made: Designed by a dentist and made on a cast of your teeth. These cause very little interference with speaking or breathing. They provide the best protection and fit over braces and fixed bridges. They also cost more.
Ready-made: Purchased at most sporting goods stores. They are the least expensive, the least effective, and least comfortable.
Knowing the Proper First Aid
If the tooth is loose, even extremely so, but is still attached in any way, leave it in place; do not remove it.
If it is out of its socket completely and unattached, but still in the victim's mouth, it is best to have the person hold it there, if possible, until Dr. Thaddous Archie & Associates can attempt re-implantation.
If it is out of the mouth, do not let it dry out. Handle it as little as possible. Do not attempt to disinfect the tooth, or scrub it, or remove any tissue attached to it. Call our office at 916-691-6020 immediately.
If it is recovered from the ground or other soiled area, rinse it off in lukewarm water. Preserve it in milk until Dr. Thaddous Archie & Associates can examine it. If milk is not available, lukewarm water will suffice.
Time out of the socket is critical in the long-term success of re-implantation. After 30 minutes, the success potential begins to decline. However, re-implantation by Dr. Thaddous Archie & Associates is still possible after several hours, so the attempt can still be made even if the tooth has been out for a long period.